Malaysia and Singapore



Well-established tradition of public examinations at the end of different levels of schooling.

The system has recently been reformed to replace some of the tests by school-based assessments.


High-stakes examinations in place for decades and constituting a central feature of the education system.

Examinations are used for students’ certification and streaming purposes, and have long fostered school comparisons.

Stakes have recently decreased as the elaboration of rankings has been discontinued.