Different low-stakes, standard-based assessments adopted since the mid-2000s as part of a national assessment strategy that is common to all länder.

Sample-based assessment with system-level monitoring purposes administered on a regular basis across the 16 länder.

A census-based, school-level assessments is also administered annually within the 16 länder. It is oriented at teaching and school improvement – principals and teachers are directly held accountable for school results.