Spain has determinately embraced SAWA policies with the 2013 education reform act. However, the regional governments of Madrid and Catalonia adopted SAWA policies well before.

Madrid started promoting a model of high-stakes accountability with the introduction of the CDI test in 2005. This model has been reinforced by regulations favouring freedom of school choice.

In contrast, Catalonia has privileged a model of low-stakes accountability, which is combined with a rather restricted system of school choice.