United States


Well-established system of sample-based, low-stakes NLSAs in place since the late 1960s.

Since the early 2000s, federal legislation requires states to conduct annual student assessment with high stakes for schools – as school-specific performance is widely disseminated and results’ stagnation derives in multiple sanctions.

Accountability frameworks differ greatly across states, but federal legislation has tended to encourage the expansion of incentives and sanctions faced by teachers, schools and districts.