Faced with this reality, this chapter analyses why TBA has been disseminated and adopted as a core tool of regulatory governance in education globally. Specifi cally, the chapter focuses on the reasons, factors and actors behind the international dissemination of TBA. Th e chapter is structured into two main parts. Th e fi rst part focuses on the main drivers and circumstances that, in an increasingly globalized policy and economic scenario, are conducive to the spread and adoption of TBA in education internationally, whereas the second part focuses on the particular role of international organizations in the dissemination and promotion of accountability measures in education. Methodologically, this research is based on the scoping review method which aims to identify the main trends as well as the critical areas of disagreement and the existing ‘gaps’ within a specifi c fi eld of the literature. Th e scoping review approach allows researchers to map the existing literature on a certain topic in a shorter period of time. For the purpose of this particular review, we have used mainly two scientifi c databases: Web of Science (WoS) and SCOPUS. Additionally, we carried out hand searching in key books and journals, grey literature and documents elaborated by international organizations. In total, fi ft y-one documents that focus on the international dissemination of accountability policies in education were selected. All these documents were published between 1995 and 2015.